Bill McCann

Bill McCann


Li Zi Chuang

Lǐ Zì Chuǎng



























When history is forgotten, the future is lost.



Learners are strongly encouraged to arm themselves with a good, traditional, dual-language dictionary. We highly recommend the Oxford Dictionaries aimed at the appropriate levels of Language Learning. Learners should also make frequent use of a good on-line dictionary that provides support for their own native language. Our recommendation here is for the Cambridge and Oxford on-line dictionaries

DO NOT use a digital "dictionary". They are no more than word lists that contain only the most commonly words and even then do not include all the variations in meaning and usage. They are not suitable for serious Language Learners, and, for some Learners (for example in China), can be positively dangerous and give rise to some very strange language indeed.

We very strongly advise you to arm yourself with a good printed dictionary in order to build up your vocabulary and help you to become familiar with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) way of spelling English words.
The only dictionaries you should consider are those published by the Oxford University Press (OUP) and the Cambridge University Press (CUP). Other dictionaries, particularly those from US publishers, are unsuitable for your purposes.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD)
We highly recommend that you arm yourself with a copy of this dictionary. It will take you all the way through the ESL Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate and Upper Intermediate levels.
It was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English and was first published in 1942. It is aimed specifically at speakers of other languages and is currently in its 9th edition (2015).
The OALD is one of the most used resources by learners of the English language worldwide and is useful for all competitive examinations in English. There are separate editions for speakers from many countries; a drop down list on the OPUP site will help you to find the edition that is most suitable for you.
The main page is here:


Cambridge Dictionaries
In addition to a printed dictionary, we also highly recommend that you make frequent use of a comprehensive online dictionary. We strongly recommend the Cambridge Dictionaries Online.
The main section is the Cambridge English Dictionary and Thesaurus which provides translation into 18 other languages. There are other dictionaries on the site which you may find helpful. These include a Business English Dictionary and a learners Dictionary which is aimed at Intermediate level Learners.
The main page is here: